4. Modern Mathematics Period (1820s-1940s)
The 19th century was a period of geometric revival. At the end of the 19th century, the discussion on
basis of mathematics formed three major schools, the logicism school represented by Russell, the
intuitionism school represented by Brouwer, and the formalism school represented by Hilbert.
5. The period of modern mathematics (since the 1940s)
After the Second World War, science and technology have advanced by leaps and bounds, the utilization of
atomic energy, the invention of electronic computers, and the development of space technology have
dramatic changes in mathematics. The three major characteristics of mathematics: high abstraction,
systematic rigor and extensive application are more clearly revealed.
Neurons in the brain fire especially during certain mathematical operations.
A recent study by the
Universities of Tübingen and Bonn shows this. The findings showed that some of the detected neurons were
only active during addition, while others were active during subtraction. High-performing children's
brain regions involved in higher math skills are associated with various cognitive tasks involving
visual attention and decision-making. While correlation may not imply causation, this study shows that
the brain regions that help you do math are recruited during decision-making and attention. In 2021, new
research published by the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom in the Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences in the United States showed that lack of mathematics education has a negative impact
on the brain and cognitive development of adolescents. These studies can explain to a certain extent
that learning mathematics is good for our brain development.
Mathematics is used in almost every profession in one way or another.
Mathematicians and scientists rely
on mathematical principles to do the most basic aspects of their work, such as testing hypotheses.
People working in factories must be able to do mental arithmetic to keep track of parts on the assembly
line. Even a cashier needs to know basic arithmetic. Any job requires math because you have to know how
to calculate your salary and balance your expenses. Li Kaifu, vice president of Google, once said: "The
knowledge system of most science and engineering majors is based on the cornerstone of mathematics.
Learning mathematics knowledge can cultivate and train people's thinking ability." And the most popular
occupations in the United States such as actuarial science Teachers, IT engineers, etc. are also mostly
graduated from mathematics.
People who know math can understand basic life skills such as managing a budget, building furniture,
forecasting, and telling time.
These are basic skills for adults. If children start learning mathematics
well at an early age, they will be able to master these life skills and be better able to solve life
problems when they grow up. In addition, independent thinking is inevitable when we study mathematics,
and this is precisely the necessary process for us to solve problems in our daily life.
You can teach your child social and emotional learning by encouraging them to solve math problems in
“There’s a deep connection between persistence and math,” explains Jessica Young,
developmental psychologist and mathematics researcher, “Being able to encourage that persistence is
where those social and emotional learning skills come in.” Engaging specific parts of the brain during
mental arithmetic exercises has been linked to better emotional health, according to a new
brain-scanning study by Duke University researchers published in the Journal of Clinical Psychological
Science. Mental arithmetic stimulates an area of the brain called the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,
which is linked to depression and anxiety, the study found. The more activity in this area, the less
symptoms of anxiety and depression. A well-established form of psychotherapy called cognitive behavioral
therapy, which teaches individuals how to rethink negative situations, is also thought to boost activity
in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Mental arithmetic can improve a child's memory.
Memory is the ability a child or any person has to
retain information and store it in the brain. Improving their mental math skills will increase their
ability to store vast amounts of information in their brains. Practicing mental arithmetic allows us to
perform tasks more efficiently. Dr. Abdazi explains the science behind acquiring fluent skills in math:
Memories are stored in neural connections; Few neural connections are created at a time - because it
involves building proteins which takes time; We remember best the information we saw most recently and
most often; Practice and repetition over time works.
From the perspective of the work of the brain, the hippocampus and angular gyrus are involved in memory
work for arithmetic. The hippocampus is located deep in the brain. It plays an important role in storing
arithmetic facts. The hippocampus is the brain's "save" button. In mathematics, it works in tandem with
the frontal cortex to help you store the answers to arithmetic problems as arithmetic facts in your
long-term memory. When you solve arithmetic problems, the angular gyrus is involved in discovering these
Scientific research is starting to amass evidence on the ability of brain training activities to enhance
cognitive abilities, including concentration, in persons.
It is not difficult to find that when people
do mental calculations, they will concentrate more than usual, and their brains will be more active.
From the perspective of the work of the brain, the parietal cortex is responsible for understanding the
meaning of numbers. The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex works with regions in the parietal cortex to
blend out distractions, such as daydreaming about your next bike ride with your friends. The
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is needed to manipulate numbers, like splitting up a large problem into
The easier steps. Frontal gyrus has been found to play an important role in ignoring similar but
incorrect answers. The arithmetic process requires these parts to work together, which requires our